The main benefit of central air is to remove heat and humidity from the inside of a room, home, or building and maintain comfort. Central air installation has a goal of keeping the interior of a building at a constant temperature no matter what is happening with the temperature outside. Without central air to help natural ventilation inside of homes and buildings, the height and depth of buildings would be limited to allow for natural air flow.
When the central air conditioner first came into use at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was used to cool down a printing plant in Syracuse, New York. By the 1950s, people wanted the same kind of coolness in their homes and cars. So, the demand created a need for the central air conditioner model to be reduced in size and sold in residential settings.
The way central air conditioners work is through a refrigeration process that works much like that found in refrigerators that store and cool food. Heat naturally flows from high heat sources to lower heat sources, but the refrigeration process reverses this natural tendency.
In much the same way, central air conditioners use an electric motor and compressor to release heat, reduce the humidity of the air, and pump a refrigerant through the unit to aid the cooling process.